By Henry Griffiths
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Extra resources for A handbook of veterinary parasitology : domestic animals of North America
G. from Chrysanthemum plants. g. g. permethrin, allethrin), carbamates, organophosphates etc. : – blocking of neurotransmitters, – blocking of GABA receptors or their antagonists, – blocking of the acetylcholine esterase. These synthetical insecticidal compounds have, however, several disadvantages, since – there exist already a broad spectrum of resistances with respect to many substances, – several compounds have a very high toxicity, – rain can wash them down from walls or from fur of animals thus requiring costful repeated treatments, – they may become transported by hand-mouth contacts into the intestinal tract of humans and thus leading to intoxication, – may be licked off from walls, fences etc.
Normally spurred investigational practice for the biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles is currently settled as a developing zone of nanoscience innovative work. As 5 Phytosynthesis of Metal and Metal-Oxide Nanoparticles – Technological Concepts 57 Nanoparticle synthesis Top down methods (size reduction) Bottom up methods (build up from smaller entities) • Mechanical milling/ball milling • Chemical/electrochemical precipitation • Chemical etching • Thermal ablation/laser ablation • Explosion processes • Vapor deposition • Atomic/molecular condensation • Sputtering • Sol-gel processes • Spray pyrolysis • Laser pyrolysis • Aerosol processes • Bioreductions Metal salts NADPH Metal nanoparticles NADP • Using cell-free extracts (plants, microorgnisms, macrofungi, macroalgae) • Using whole organism/tissue (plants, mushrooms, seaweeds, microbial cells) Fig.
Mehlhorn (b) Development of so-called arthopodocides/insecticides = products that kill aggressors belonging to the group of ticks, mites or blood-feeding respectively food or material destroying insects. 2 Repellents Especially mosquitoes and flies can be kept away from their blood donors by help of plant-derived repellent compounds or by chemical substances, which both hide the hosts from attacking bloodsuckers by covering the attractive skin odor, which consists of a clearly individual mixture of about 40 compounds such as carboxyl ammonia, lactic acid, carbon dioxide etc.