By Vahid Yaghmai MD, Dushyant V Sahani MD
Regardless of technical advances utilizing MR and the emergence of puppy imaging, CT is still a regularly used imaging modality that has no longer stood nonetheless whereas others have thrived. Advances in CT have persisted apace with different modalities that have taken CT into new parts of imaging that quite a few brief years in the past it could actually no longer procedure. With the arrival of 64-slice CT, a better variety of photographs should be taken in a far faster time period. using CT perfusion within the mind and stomach are reviewed during this factor. leading edge concepts corresponding to 4D CT and twin power CT can be mentioned, in addition to CT functions for imaging of the coronary arteries and cardiac valves.
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For example, using a dualsource CT scanner, standard abdominal pelvic CT scanning protocols can be converted to dualenergy protocols by maintaining the same volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) and splitting the exposure between the two tube energies. Tube currents for each energy are chosen so that, as much as possible, the image sets are noise matched. In practice the 80-kV tube often uses a tube current approximately four to five times as high as the 140-kV tube, to match the noise level to the extent possible (Fig.
The difficulty with the routine use of low-kV CT is increased image noise, which can be minimized using both techniques. With dual-energy CT, the noise of the low-kV data is offset by the decreased noise of the higher-kV data. At dual-source CT, the use of both x-ray tubes extends the dynamic range of tube currents available beyond the system limits of single-source CT systems. The separation of materials can be achieved using only dual-energy CT, wherein CT numbers at each voxel can be compared between two different tube energies.
American Association of Physicists in Medicine. A primer on low-level ionizing radiation and its biological effects. New York: AAPM; 1986. Report no. 18. 68. Wagner LK, Huda W. When a pregnant woman with suspected appendicitis is referred for a CT scan, what should a radiologist do to minimize potential radiation risks? Pediatr Radiol 2004; 34(7):589–90. 69. Castro MA, Shipp TD, Castro EE, et al. The use of helical computed tomography in pregnancy for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184(5):954–7.