Download An Attributional Theory of Motivation and Emotion by Bernard Weiner PDF

By Bernard Weiner

For decades i've got had the gnawing wish to express the large motivational sig­ nificance of the attributional belief that i've got espoused and to give totally the argument that this framework has earned a rightful position along different best theories of motivation. additionally, fresh investigations have yielded insights into the attributional determinants of impact, therefore delivering the impetus to embark upon a close dialogue of emotion and to explain the relation among emotion and motivation from an attributional standpoint. The presentation of a unified concept of motivation and emotion is the objective of this publication. My extra particular goals within the chapters to keep on with are to: 1) define the elemental princi­ ples that i think represent an sufficient thought of motivation; 2) express what I understand to be the conceptual contributions of the point of view encouraged by means of my col­ leagues and me; three) Summarize the empirical kinfolk, achieve a few definitive con­ clusions, and indicate the extra equivocal empirical institutions in keeping with hypotheses derived from our specific attribution concept; and four) make clear questions which have been raised approximately this perception and supply new fabric for nonetheless extra scrutiny. In so doing, the development blocks (if any) laid down through the attributional con­ ception can be easily pointed out and unknown juries of current and destiny friends can then larger be certain the worth of this clinical product.

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Extra info for An Attributional Theory of Motivation and Emotion

Sample text

Anderson (1983b) found that 58% of the participants revealed some causal thinking when freely responding, and approximately five of the eight items were claimed as describing their thoughts. Furthermore, causal thinking was more evident given concrete than abstract data. Anderson believes this to be the case because concrete information is more readily assessible from memory and more easily imaginable, thus promoting causal inferences about the relation between personality and job performance. Rather than examining the recall of prior thoughts, Gilovich (1983) analyzed current thinking about a prior event.

In these studies, the experimenters assessed indexes presumed to be influenced by causal thinking, including selection of information, free recall, and the content of sentence completions. Pyszczynski and Greenberg (1981) created one of the infrequent nonachievementrelated contexts used in the study of attributional search. Their subjects were first led to believe that the experiment was concerned with "getting acquainted" processes and personality impressions. The subjects then had the opportunity to observe a confederate comply with or refuse to do the experimenter a favor that was either easy or very time consuming.

These are primarily achievement-related outcomes, but nevertheless one is impressed by the variety of specific contexts in which this principle appears to be operative. Why should unexpected outcome and failure stimulate causal thinking? Concerning unexpected outcome, it has been demonstrated that novel events promote exploration (Berlyne, 1960). For example, head turning is a reaction to a novel stimulus such as a loud noise. This orienting response is a reflexive search for more information. Attributional search thus can be considered one instance of the more general class of exploratory behaviors that are elicited in the face of uncertainty (including unexplained internal arousal; see Schachter & Singer, 1962).

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