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By Norman J. G. Pounds

The vital topic of this e-book is the altering spatial trend of human actions over the past 2,500 years of Europe's background. Professor kilos argues that 3 elements have made up our minds the destinations of human actions: the surroundings, the attitudes and types of social association of the numerous diversified peoples of Europe and finally, the degrees of expertise. in the large framework of the interrelationships of atmosphere, society and expertise, numerous vital issues pursued from the 5th century BC to the early 20th century: cost and agriculture, the expansion of towns, the improvement of producing and the function of exchange. Underlying each one of those issues are the discussions of political association and inhabitants. even supposing the publication is predicated partially of Professor Pound's magisterial 3 volumes An historic Geography of Europe (1977, 1980, 1985), it was once written specially for college kids and readers attracted to a basic survey of the topic.

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Extra info for An Historical Geography of Europe (Soviet and East European Studies, 79)

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The varieties of wheat generally cultivated were emmer and spelt, forms which have since been very largely displaced by others which either yield more heavily or can be milled with greater ease. Even at this early date we find that man, albeit unconsciously, was introducing genetic changes into the crops which he cultivated by his selection of seed for planting. Throughout Europe, north of the Alps, animal rearing was important. Meat and milk were essential parts of the human diet. Cattle were used for the plow, and horses were bred for war and for drawing the chariots of the Celts.

So close was the union of Chalcidic cities that they even minted a common coinage. " One must not think of the Greeks as the only creators of city-states. Closely similar settlements were made at this time by a very different people, the Phoenicians. They derived from the coastal cities of the Levant. They were seafarers, who founded their premier colony at Carthage, near the site of the modern Tunis, in North Africa. From here they established daughter colonies in the western basin of the Mediterranean.

It was usually walled, and in some instances the walls were so long and enclosed so great an area that it is difficult to see how they could possibly have been defended in their entirety. The walls of Athens, for example, were no less than sixteen miles long. To some extent this vast enclosure derived from the need, especially in earlier times, to have space into which to drive animals in time of emergency. As the city grew it commonly spread out over lower and flatter ground, and most of the last cities to be founded were built on flat land beside a river which provided them with water.

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