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By Jeremy Johns

Jeremy Johns' precise research is the 1st entire account of the Arabic management of Norman Sicily. whereas it really is typically assumed that the Normans inherited their management from the Muslim governors of the island, Johns demonstrates that the Norman kings really restructured their management to the version of Fatimid Egypt. Controversially, he means that their goal used to be now not administrative potency, however the projection in their royal photograph. This available account of the Norman rulers unearths how they on the topic of their opposite numbers within the Muslim Mediterranean.

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78 There may also be archaeological evidence for the poll-tax in Sicily. 80 This does not fit the evidence from Sicily where the seals were reported to have been found buried together in a single ‘hoard’, which would seem to suggest that, if they are indeed receipts of payment of the jizya, they belonged to a settled family unit, possibly one belonging to the class described by al-Dwudı as paying jizya upon its lands. 1020–68, from the last decades of Kalbid rule until shortly before the Norman capture of Palermo.

See also Canard 1957a. 125–6. 305–9, 325–6. Chapter 1 ‘In the time of the Saracens …’ 21 Jawhar returned, he resumed his old duties while Nußayr was sent east to organise the naval expedition. In the absence of Jawhar and Nußayr, the financial administration went into severe decline, suggesting that Jawdhar’s own talents did not extend to the minutiae of fiscal administration, and that he had previously relied upon Jawhar, Nußayr, and their staff. 47 The revenues administered by the financial apparatus were essentially two: the personal income of the caliph, which mostly derived from the Ismfiılı community; and the jibyt al-ml, public taxes.

Chapter 1 ‘In the time of the Saracens …’ 25 settlers of Agrigento. Subsequently, a few of the latter and some of their descendants appealed to the sultan (one of the early Kalbids may be the ruler intended) to respect their prior rights and expel the newcomers. The sultan demanded that they substantiate their claims with documentary proof and, when they were unable to do so, he ruled that the town was fay√ – or conquered booty belonging to the community of Muslims. He questioned some of the oldest shaykhs in Sicily as to the status of Agrigento: One of them replied, ‘All the tax-registers (dawwın) were under the control of my father and he was lord of the fifth (ß˛ib al-khums) of that town, and of its kharj, and he was amın over it.

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